You must know these high flu seasons
- Published: December 18, 2019
- Source: Xinhuanet
In winter, the weather is getting cooler, and the season of high flu has arrived. How can you prevent flu effectively? Can I take medicine without a cold? Is it true to heal without medication for seven days? These issues are issues of concern to everyone. Recently, Xinhua interviewed Cao Ling, chief physician of the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, and interpreted topics that everyone was concerned about.
Reporter: How to distinguish flu from common cold?
Cao Ling: The difference between flu and common cold is very big. The first cause of these two diseases is different. The common cold is usually caused by respiratory coronavirus, syncytial virus, rhinovirus, etc. The flu is caused by influenza virus (influenza A and B virus) infection. Acute respiratory infections. The second is that the severity of the disease is different. The general symptoms of flu are high fever, body temperature can reach 39-40 ° C, and common cold is generally 37-38 ° C. The third is that the duration of the disease is different. The symptoms of the common cold generally improve significantly in 3-5 days, but the flu usually lasts about 7-10 days, and the duration is longer. The fourth is that the complications of the disease are different. The common cold rarely has complications, which is usually a few days, but the flu will have very serious complications, including the lungs, liver, kidneys, brain, and so on. appear.
In addition, the fatality rate of the disease is completely different. Generally, colds rarely cause death, but many people die every year because of the flu. Therefore, we must remind everyone to prevent and control the flu and seek medical treatment as soon as possible.
Reporter: What is the main reason for the flu epidemic?
Cao Ling: Influenza virus itself is a highly infectious virus. It is mainly transmitted through short-range respiratory droplets. It can also be transmitted directly or indirectly through mucous membranes such as the oral cavity, nasal cavity, and eyes. Aggregative epidemics occur in places where people gather. One is a sick person, the other is a recessive infection. The so-called recessive infection is a person who is not sick but carries the virus. These people may spit when they sneeze, cough, or speak loudly. It spreads the virus into the air. If other people are closer to him, they will inhale the particles of the virus into their airways and cause infection.
Reporter: How to judge whether a child coughs a cold or asthma?
Cao Ling: The symptoms of fever in general asthma attacks are not obvious, because asthma itself is a non-infectious disease, so most coughs caused by asthma are not fever, but about 70% of children with asthma attacks are due to the respiratory tract Caused by infection, but respiratory infections are not limited to the flu, such as colds, those rhinoviruses, syncytial viruses, etc. may cause asthma attacks, so at this time there may be some fever and some low fever, but generally not Will be particularly high, if it is extremely high fever should be alert to the flu, it may be the flu.
Reporter: It ’s true that you do n’t take medicine for seven days to recover from a cold.
Cao Ling: Colds caused by viruses are generally self-limiting. If the cold is not very serious, then it will be fine in a few days, but if it is flu, you should go to the hospital for treatment because it may cause complications. bigger. Especially children under the age of five, or children with previous underlying diseases, are all at high risk of influenza. Therefore, if these children have influenza, it is recommended that they go to the hospital as soon as possible.
Reporter: Smoked with vinegar can eliminate the flu virus?
Cao Ling: This method does not have much scientific basis. Because smoked vinegar does not kill the influenza virus itself, but the vinegar itself is irritating to the respiratory tract, so the smoked vinegar itself may have a certain stimulus to the respiratory tract. It is recommended that you do not use vinegar to kill the influenza virus. This is No scientific basis.
Reporter: Why do flu vaccines have to be shot every year?
Cao Ling: Influenza viruses are very susceptible to mutation, because the viruses that circulate each year are different. This is the reason for getting the flu vaccine every year, because the flu vaccine this year may not be the same as the virus strain that will be circulating next year, so you should get the flu vaccine every year. The second is about the age of vaccination. In principle, anyone who is 6 months of age or older who is willing to get the flu vaccine and has no contraindications can get the flu vaccine. The China Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends children aged 6 to 5 years, elderly aged 60 and over, patients with chronic diseases, medical staff, family members and caregivers of infants under 6 months of age, pregnant women or women who are preparing to become pregnant during the flu season as the priority population .
In addition, children with a history of illness need to be vaccinated against influenza, such as those with asthma, congenital heart disease, or a history of kidney disease. The more such children need to be vaccinated against influenza. The flu vaccine can protect about 80% of the people from the flu, or even if the flu does not happen very seriously, this preventive effect is still very good.
Reporter: Some parents are worried that the vaccine will reduce their children's immunity. Is this correct?
Cao Ling: The time of vaccination is to start vaccination every year from late October. Like now, vaccination has begun and it will continue for the whole season. It is recommended that you go to fight early, in case you have the flu before you get the flu , Then it will not play a preventive role. The vaccine has no effect on reducing immunity, but the vaccine may have some discomforts, such as local swelling and pain, which is a normal response to the vaccine. Generally speaking, there is no special reaction after receiving the flu vaccine. Some people may have some tiredness, or some fever, etc. These are some of the reactions after the vaccination. If it is not serious, it will be fine in a few days. If you feel very uncomfortable, you can go to the hospital for a look. Be sure to get vaccinated when you are healthy and have no acute illness. This will reduce the number of side effects. In addition, be careful not to get water on the inoculated area, for fear of infection in the eye of the needle.
Reporter: What are some other tips for preventing flu in daily life?
Cao Ling: Taking daily protective measures can also effectively reduce the infection and transmission of influenza: maintain good respiratory hygiene habits, cover your mouth and nose with tissues, towels, etc. when coughing or sneezing; wash your hands frequently, and try to avoid touching your eyes, nose, or Mouth; balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate rest, etc .; avoid close contact with patients with flu-like symptoms, try to avoid crowd gathering places during flu epidemics; patients with influenza-like symptoms should observe and isolate at home, go to work and class without illness Wear masks when contacting family members with respiratory infections to reduce the spread of the disease. When patients with flu-like symptoms go to the hospital for treatment, patients and accompanying staff should wear masks to avoid cross-infection. Families should also pay attention to disinfection and isolation. If patients with flu are at home, disinfect the items at home. Because some of the patient's secretions and body fluids, such as saliva, stool, and urine, can be contagious, everyone should pay attention to isolation when there is a flu patient at home.
The key is to fundamentally improve children's physique and enhance immunity. Children should pay attention to exercise. In winter, children can go to relatively open places, where there are few people, such as playing in the playground is all right, it is necessary to strengthen their physique, so as to avoid the attack of viruses. From the diet, we must pay attention to balanced nutrition. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are all needed by the human body. Do not be fussy, and do not eat too much every time. Traditional Chinese medicine has a theory called "If you want to be safe, always take three points. "With cold", this hunger means that you ca n’t eat too much. Generally, 70% is enough. Do n’t eat very much every day. It ’s easy to get sick. According to Xinhua News Agency